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Category: Cacti

25 Apr : 16:03

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lophophora_williamsi.jpgLofoforata (Lophophora) is famous as the narcotic cactus. When it is one of the most extraordinary representatives of the Cacti family. Its main feature is a complete lack of prickles. Instead function to condense moisture out coarse tufts of white hairs, which reaped large, sparsely located halo. They are due cactus botanical name - from the Greek words lophos - forelock, tassel, and phoros - wear. In Mexico it is called by his name predkolumbovoto peyotl, but in the U.S. - damn cactus-root pudding.

First representative of the kind described by Charles Antoine Lemaire, in 1840 under the name Echinocactus williamsii, until in 1894 John Coulter, introduced in botanical nomenclature name Lophophora, originating from the Greek words "lophos" - lock, forelock and "phero" - wear which characterizes the presence, especially in the highlight part of the stem, a highly wavy halo, resembling tufichki or shaving, chetinopodobni covered with cloth.

Lofofora is one of the most unusual genera of the family Cactaceae with quite scandalous reputation. And today, its representatives continue to be persecuted by rumors, legends, cults and administrative sanctions. This increased interest is due Lofoforite contained in the cell juice of these plants, a whole group of alkaloids, which are in use, greatly affect the nervous system of animals and humans. More dokolumbovi times, Indian shamans knew the secrets in the preparation of a sacred drink of plants collected from nature and have used it during worship and ritual ceremonies, causing self-perception of "visit by the Great Spirit." When it does not belong to the council shamans were punished at the slightest attempt to try the cherished drink. Lofoforite or cult as they are called "peyote" has survived to this day, survivors in Indian reserves, and those who do not seek to communicate with the Great Spirit used by nastoykata Lofofora, mixed with herbs, which, like the leaves of chewing on coca, leads to calm the nervous system, generating a feeling of wellbeing and satisfaction. For narcotic properties Lofoforite heavy volumes have been written, scholars from different countries and are now working hard over the construction of an innovative technology for the separation of plant cell mass of mescaline, lofoforina, pelotina, anhalonidina and other types of alkaloids. The authorities in some states of the United States and Mexico not once have introduced bans on the sale and collection of Lofofori of nature. Similar bans only act in favor of plants as their places of distribution are becoming less and less.

In their natural conditions Lofoforite occupy a rather large halo of Texas in the United States to Mexico in Queretaro state, with an altitude of 50 meters in the state of Tamaulipas to 1800 meters in the state of San Luis Potosi. There are on limestone slopes under cover of low growing shrubs at an altitude of 200 to 2000 meters.
For the most part come from dry desert areas grow on fragmentary layer of soil, including shale, in partial shade cast by Agave, Jukka, kreozotovi bushes (Larrea tridentata) and dwarf acacia.
In terms of taxonomy Lofoforite create some difficulties in seeing the performances vary in different degrees, even within a single species. Therefore, until now the number of species and their varieties are now increasing, now is reduced depending on the subjective approach of each of the researchers. As in their natural environment and in collections, Lofoforite easily distinguished by its round, flattened stem, broad, almost flat rib with the typical pattern of intercostal border with gray blue peel of the epidermis, the absence of bodlichki and down on kichurchetata not tightly mounted halo. Powerful ryapovidni enter the plant roots deep in hard soil and during the drought to reduce its volume so that you fully pull the land over-ground part of the stem. Species do not tend to form side shoots, they grow with a single stem, and only in adulthood may develop prikorenovi processes, they often develop their own root system, steblovi or lateral shoots.

For kaktusarite Lofoforite represent a valuable material, and if kept under optimal conditions, become an ornament to any collection. Not big cactuses are round, slightly flattened, smooth stem, growing to a height of up to 3 cm in diameter and up to 5 cm, with a velvety epidermis colored in grayish-blue or gray. The roots are massive, ryapovidni. Ribs 6 to 10 of them are slightly curved, very broad, particularly around the areola, are separated by thin and crisp stria. In transverse ribs are causing dents and forming soft izdatinki outlined. Covered with large white feather halo lie often, those in the highlight part of the stem have tufts of white or gray hairs. Bodlichki practically absent. The colors are white, soft pink, bright pink, yellow, funievidni, wide open, firmly attached, appear near the point of growth and up to 2 cm in diameter. The fruits are pale pink, oblong, about 1 cm long, containing several seeds and appear 9-12 months after flowering. Older plants should be kept in deep pots, covering the height size of the root system. Substrate must be found in up to 60% by volume mixture of sandy-loam, mixed with equal parts keramzit and gravel, up 20 percent this leaflet, the remainder of aggregates.
Cultivation of these cacti is not difficult enough to observe some mandatory rules. In the summer months Lofoforite must be placed in a sunny spot, and the substrate must be kept wet. It is better not to be sprayed with water because this can lead to loss of covering Puha halo. Fall of irrigation was gradually reduced and the plant is preparing to completely dry wintering at 6.10 degrees. With the coming of spring awakening began, not to make early watering. Wrinkled even through winter stem, with the rise in temperature and humidity in the surrounding environment, gaining strength and tip zelenee. During this period Lofoforite must be protected from direct sunlight to avoid burns. Only after the plants grow, you can resume watering. Lofofori propagation, is done primarily by seed. Freshly harvested seeds germinate relatively quickly and simultaneously develop. Three, four years after their germination, and sometimes even earlier, when properly rearing Lofoforite began to flourish. Graft is done, if only to save a copy or killed for commercial purposes, for faster development of semenachetata. Transplanted specimens, often copious stool, which in turn opens the way for their vegetative propagation. Cut into root cuttings after drying, extremely easy to root. Gives good results rooting of cuttings in the autumn. Layer is placed on perlite and kept under conditions of hibernation until spring. In the spring of places have been cut, forming powerful "waiting" roots, then the plants are ready for planting in the substrate. When cutting the main stem on the root neck, provided that leave intact root system, often form one or more shoots in place of the cut.


The only recognized until Lofofori species recorded in the full list of representatives of the family Cactaceae are Lophophora williamsii (standard type) and Lophophora diffusa.

- Lophophora williamsii v. caespitosa - obrastva plenty of side shoots
- Lophophora williamsii v. decipiens - have the largest trunk up to 10 cm in diameter. Ribs are 11 numbers, divided into large conical izdatinki located spiral. The colors are pink and dioecious.
- Lophophora williamsii v. pentagona - has 5 wide ribs with slight izdatinki.
- Lophophora williamsii v. pluricostata - most splesnatoto plant with weak ribs out of 10 to 13 in number.
- Lophophora williamsii v. texana - is a rare plant with straight ribs, their number reached 14.
Cultivation: In the early years grow quite slowly blooms as possible in the third, fourth year in the spring.
* Lophophora fricii
Min. temperature: 5 ° C
Location: direct sunlight, the maximum luminance
Origin: Mexico (state Koauila, Vieska areas, Parras, San Pedro)
Divergence from the main form of Lophophora williamsii: epidermis is light green or grayish green, usually separated by ribs stria are plenty of bumps. The colors are pink and red cross-pollinated. Fruits are pink in color with red tint. Seeds are black, 1-1,5 cm long chemical composition (alkaloids) also appears to be different.
- Lophophora fricii forma albiflora - form with white
* Lophophora jourdaniana
Min. temperature: 5 ° C
Location: direct sunlight, the maximum luminance
Origin: unknown
Divergence from the main form of Lophophora williamsii: purple-green color of the stems, smaller in size red violet colors, which are cross-pollinated, small transparent white halo bodlichki younger.
* Lophophora lutea
Min. temperature: 5 ° C
Location: direct sunlight, the maximum luminance
Origin: unknown
Divergence from the main form of Lophophora diffusa: stems are yellowish with a gray or brownish tinge, reach a diameter of 10 cm, not letting the side shoots. Curved ribs are separated by the stria. Areola are slightly wavy. Flowers are yellowish white, comparatively large.
* Lophophora viridescens
Min. temperature: 5 ° C
Location: direct sunlight, the maximum luminance
Origin: Central Mexico (San Luis Potosi, Rio Verde area).
Divergence from the main form of Lophophora diffusa: J. Halda recorded this species in the genus list, explaining that the existing difference between seeds and flowers, in comparison with Lophophora diffusa.
Description: Better known as Lophophora diffusa v. koehresii, this plant has a stem of green, darker than that of other species. The colors are creamy white with light brown stripe down the middle, more colors are the standard types. The fruits are white with pink tinge. Seeds are black, 1-1,5 cm long

Propagation is by seed or by separating detkite. Fresh seeds have good germination and their kaktuscheta evolve rapidly. When properly rearing young lofofori zatsaftyavat when age 3 years. Since many detki lofoforite form, multiplication by separating them is not a problem. Those who are close to the soil, usually have their root system and easily they live alone.

In our climate in lofoforite drugs are not formed, so do not eat them!

Light: Profuse sun.

Water: moderate summer, winter is not watered.

Humidity: Low.

Feeding: Not necessary.

john coulter   lophophora   phoros   echinocactus   phero   
Category: Cacti

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john coulter   lophophora   phoros   echinocactus   phero   

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